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Scholes, R.J., B. Reyers, R. Biggs, M.J. Spierenburg and A. Duriappah. 2013. Multi-scale and cross-scale assessments of social-ecological systems and their ecosystem services, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
It is often either undesirable or unfeasible to conduct an assessment of ecological or social systems, independently or jointly, at a single scale and resolution in time and space. This paper outlines the alternatives, which include ‘multi-scale assessments’ (conducting the assessment at two or more discrete scales) and ‘cross-scale assessments’ (multi-scale assessments which deliberately look for cross-scale interactions), a...
Belinda Reyers, Reinette Biggs, Graeme S Cumming, Thomas Elmqvist, Adam P Hejnowicz, and Stephen Polasky 2013. Getting the measure of ecosystem services: a social–ecological approach. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 268–273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/120144
Despite growing interest and investment in ecosystem services across global science and policy arenas, it remains unclear how ecosystem services – and particularly changes in those services – should be measured. The social and ecological factors, and their interactions, that create and alter ecosystem services are inherently complex. Measuring and managing ecosystem services requires a sophisticated systems-based approach th...
Elmqvist, T., S. Polasky, F. Alpizar, H. Berg, T. Bergendorff, R. Biggs, G. Cumming, O. Eriksson, A. Hejnowicz, A. Kinzig, C. Kremen, A. Larigauderie, S. Naeem, C. Perrings, S. Purushothaman, B. Reyers, M. Schultz. 2010. Ecosystem Service Indicators: A social-ecological systems approach for generating relevant indicators for the CBD 2020 targets. Report to UNEP and the CBD. DIVERSITAS bioSUSTAINABILITY Program, Stockholm, Sweden.
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